In an induction motor, the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained via electromagnetic induction from the rotating magnetic field of the stator winding. Motor guide february 2014 low voltage motors motor guide. Consequently, the rated output of 100 horsepower should be derated to approximately 82 hp to reduce the possibility of damage to the motor. Equation 4 the slip method the slip method for estimating motor load is recommended when only operating speed measurements are available. The singlephase motor stator has a laminated iron core with two windings arranged perpendicularly. There are two types of induction motors, one with wound type rotor, also called slipring motor and another one with squirrelcage rotor. When this is a motor requirement, it must be specified with the order. Hence, an utmost care should be exercised in selection of most appropriate type of motor considering number of technical factors for each application, so that the motor would provide desired and optimum performance.
Device that converts electrical or other energy into mechanical energy or imparts motion concerned with or. Induction motor basics, single phase and three phase. Selection considerations there are differences in characteristics between standard ac motors and stepping motors. Wound rotor induction motors are useful in some applications above 250 kw because the resistance of the rotor circuits can be. The following graph illustrates a typical speed torque curve for a nema design b induction motor. By far the most commonly used ac motor is the induction motor. The speed at which an induction motor operates is dependent upon the input power frequency and the number of electrical magnetic poles for which the motor is wound the higher the frequency, the faster the motor runs. High dynamic performance means you are accelerating your motor. Selection criteria of motors for various applications 1. Motor torque, load torque and selection of motors 243 2. T po pullout, breakdown or maximum torque, obtainable over the entire speed range.
Jun 05, 2017 if you are selecting a motor for maximum dynamic performance then the inertia of the rotor has to be considered. Squirrel cage wound rotor with slip rings the rotating magnetic field the basic idea of an electric motor is to generate two magnetic fields. The ac induction motor is simple, low cost, reliable and widely used throughout the world. The rotor will constantly be turning to align its magnetic field with that of the stator field. Selection of induction motors for industrial applications part 1 photo credit. In a singlephase induction motor, starting torque is always lower than the rated torque. In a split phase motor, the running winding should have a high resistance and low inductance b low resistance and high inductance c high resistance as well as high inductance d low resistance as well as low inductiance ans. There is an air gap between the stator and the rotor and since it. Can you run the mixer, fan or pump slower at times. The equation that relates motor load to measured current values is shown in equation 4. An induction motor can therefore be made without electrical connections to the rotor. Check that the motor can start the load and get it up to speed. For instance, a 100 horsepower, threephase motor operating with voltages of 598, 575 and 552 applied at the motor terminals is running with a 4% voltage unbalance 100 x 23575.
In order to control the speed of an ac induction motor a more complex controller, usually called an inverter is required. Ac motor selection and application guide by general electric. An induction motor also known as an asynchronous motor is a commonly used ac electric motor. An electric motor capacitor is a device that first stores, then releases an electrical charge to help start an electrical motor starting capacitor or to keep it spinning run capacitor the electrical charge or potential energy stored in the capacitor is used to give a power boost to the motor to help it overcome inertia to start rotating. Premium efficiency motor selection and application. Department of energy doe office of energy efficiency and renewable energy eere with support from the copper development association cda. Free download induction motor seminar ppt, pdf report.
How to select a motor for an industrial application. The speed at which an induction motor operates is dependent upon the input. The windings inside the rotor do not go straight but are skewered for the purpose of reducing electrical noise and vibration. Selection criteria of motors for various applications. Induction motor totallyenclosed fancooled nema standard epact three phase induction motors sdesign versatility teco totally enclosed fan cooled squirrelcage induction motors are designed, manufactured and tested to meet or exceed the latest nema, ieee, csa and. Generally speaking, the choice is either an ac motor, a dc motor, or a servostepper motor. Variable frequency operation motors are available for use on variable frequency inverters. Generally, it is known as the asynchronous motor because its running speed is less than its synchronous speed. Inertia is the resistance to rotational acceleration or deceleration. Selection of electric motor drives for electric vehicles.
This paper also proposes improvement of the conventional dtc without voltages zeros using the improvement of the switching table and the. Testing of induction motor december 30, 2018 february 24, 2012 by electrical4u demand of energy is growing day by day and along with it cost of energy rising abruptly, so now it is necessary that the health of large motors which consumes maximum power should be taken care off. Single phase induction motor the singlephase induction machine is the most frequently used motor for refrigerators, washing machines, clocks, drills, compressors, pumps, and so forth. You should also make a dc measurement of stator winding linetoline resistance using a dmm. The rotor of an induction motor can be a squirrel cage rotor or wound. An encoder is a device installed on the shaft of a motor that can be used to keep track of the position of the motor or calculate the speed of the motor. When the motor speed increase, the load increases, which requires more horsepower and more torque. The motor is mounted in a test rig that allows one to control the torque applied to the motor shaft and to measure both rpm and torque.
Motor current monitoring and analysis mcsa is a straight forward tool to diagnosing problems with large inductive motors. The synchronous speed of an induction motor depends on the frequency of the power supply and on the. Model number m800006 outline dimension drawing see figure 4 nameplate data 1 see figure 5 rated frequency 50 hz motor location indoor altitude less than meters relative humidity less than 90% ambient temp 40 degrees c max duty type continuous weight approx. The rotor core helps conducting the magnetic field from the stator to the rotor windings. Standard ac motors the speed of induction motors and reversible motors vary with the size of. Department of energy doe office of energy efficiency and renewable energy eere with support from the copper. How does inertia influence induction motor selection.
Select the motor size and gear ratio from the torque. Selection of induction motors for industrial applications. The premium efficiency motor selection and application guide and its companion publication, continuous energy improvement in motor driven systems, have been developed by the u. Selecting a motor that satisfies the specifications required by your equipment is an important key to ensuring the desired reliability and economic efficiency of the equipment. John malinowski, senior product manager, ac motors, baldor electric company. An induction motor or asynchronous motor is an ac electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding. As the motor or gearmotor selection process begins, the designer must gather the relevant technical and commercial requirements. So obviously the speed of an induction motor can be controlled by varying any of three factors namely supply frequency f, number of pole p or slip s. Department of energy doe office of energy efficiency and. This section introduces the procedure to select the ideal motor, selection calculations, key points of selection and selection examples. An induction motor is the most modest electrical machine from constructional point of view, in the majority of the cases.
The stator consists of a series of wire windings of very low resistance permanently attached to the motor frame. An understanding of several points on this curve will aid in. The main methods employed for speed control of induction motors are as follows. This guidebook is an informational resource that identifies motorrelated considerations that affect the overall efficiency of motordriven systems. Ac motor selection and application guide electrical engineering. Hence, an utmost care should be exercised in selection of most appropriate type of motor considering number of technical factors for each application, so that the motor would provide desired and. Gearmotor selection process steps to complete to ensure a gearmotor properly matches the application. The speed at which an induction motor operates is dependent upon the input power frequency and the number of electrical magnetic poles for which the motor is wound. Apr 10, 2019 motor speed plays a large role in these applications.
Generally speaking, there are three different types of. Because of the simplicity of operation, ruggedness of construction and low maintenance, these are the most commonly used motors for industrial fan applications having power requirements of one horsepower or greater. Single phase induction motors multiple choice questions. The premium efficiency motor selection and application guide and its. Ac motor construction shown in figure 1 is a cutaway view of a typical ac. An induction motor can be defined as the ac electric motor device in which a power source fed by the alternating current with the help of a primary winding. If you are selecting a motor for maximum dynamic performance then the inertia of the rotor has to be considered. These forms calculate the necessary torque, speed, stopping accuracy and system inertia important when selecting a proper motor for the application. The more poles the motor has, the slower it runs the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator is called synchronous speed. Premium efficiency motor selection and application guide i acknowledgments the premium efficiency motor selection and application guide and its companion publication, continuous energy improvement in motor driven systems, have been developed by the u. The induction motor is made up of the stator, or stationary windings, and the rotor. Basic construction and operating principle like most motors, an ac induction motor has a fixed outer portion, called the stator and a rotor that spins inside with a carefully engineered air gap between. As a voltage and a current is applied to the stator winding terminals.
Unless otherwise the name plate specifies, all the squirrelcage, 3 phase, induction motors lower than v and smaller than 315 frame size can safely run continuously at the speed in the table below. A motor with only armortisseur windings is called an induction motor. Selection criteria for induction motors for vfd applications. The speed of a motor is always part of the motor selection discussion, as is an applications need for frequent or fast starts and stops.
Ac motors which run at fixed speed, without slip, and are. Encoders are often used with a dc motor and a pid control system in order to achieve positionvelocity control of a motor that would otherwise only have simple onoff control. The basic idea of an electric motor is to generate two magnetic fields. Confirm the permissible inertia j gof the motor selected is greater than load inertia j l watts 1, 3 6 15 25 40 60, 90 200 x 104kgm 2 0. Direct torque control dtc is a control technique in ac drive systems to obtain high performance torque ripple. Motor speed plays a large role in these applications. Understanding the main types of loads, motors, and applications can help simplify motor and accessory selection. This final thesis will mostly be dedicated to induction motors but also to synchronous permanent magnet and reluctance motors.
Motor selection is often a complicated process that takes a lot of work with various vendors and time to sort and evaluate quotes. Induction motor works on the principle of induction where electromagnetic field is induced into the rotor when rotating magnetic field of stator cuts the. The higher the frequency, the faster the motor runs. Speed of a dc shunt motor can be varied very easily with good efficiency, but in case of induction motors, speed reduction is accompanied by a corresponding loss of efficiency and poor power factor.
Induction motor testing and evaluation summary as energy costs rise, more emphasis is being placed on determining the health of large inductive motors. An induction motor is practically a constant speed motor, that means, for the entire loading range, change in speed of the motor is quite small. Guide for acmotor selection pdf,101 kb oriental motor. Pdf selection of electric motor drives for electric vehicles. Pdf a method is described to assist in the analysis of test results and the comparative ranking of induction motors from different manufacturers after. Motor selection 123 motor design 123 converter selection 124 10. The explanation of universal um, permanent magnet dc pmdc, ac induction and brushless. During motor acceleration, the programmed thermal overload curve is dynamically adjusted the selection of the overload curve type and the shape is based on motor thermal limit curves provided by motor vendor. Induction motor seminar ppt, pdf report study mafia.
Standard ac motors the speed of induction motors and reversible motors vary with the size of the load torque. Motors that require 50 and 60 hz operation of the same motor are nonnema defined motors and will be nameplated as such. Pdf a guide for the ranking and selection of induction motors. Device that converts electrical or other energy into mechanical energy or imparts motion concerned with or involving muscular movement 3. The 3phase set of currents, each of equal magnitude and with a phase. Induction motor theory jerry bednarczyk, pe course content introduction the ac induction motor is well suited to applications requiring constant speed operation. Efficiency classes of singlespeed threephase cage induction motors. There are many aspects to consider when selecting a motor, such as application, operational, mechanical, and environmental issues. Oct 27, 2017 selection criteria of motors for various applications 1. Selecting a gear motor in 4 simple steps groschopp blog. Safe running speed for the squirrelcage induction motors. This first step is often overlooked, but it is a critical component in the design process. Premium efficiency motor selection and application guide i acknowledgments the premium efficiency motor selection and application guide and its companion publication, continuous energy improvement in motordriven systems, have been developed by the u.
Constant speed operation at rated speed but with variable torque eg induction motor running at constant speed. These online motor sizing tools are designed to make sizing a motor faster and easier. An induction motors rotor can be either wound type or squirrelcage type. Select the motor size and gear ratio from the torque step 2. Shown below are some of the points you should know when sizing a motor. In order to understand how an inverter works, it is necessary to understand how an induction motor works. Groschopp engineers share knowledge and expertise about the motor selection process. Record all nameplate information for the induction motor. Nov 03, 2019 an induction motor also known as an asynchronous motor is a commonly used ac electric motor. The rated output of an induction motor is defined for the designated duty when the ambient temperature of the coolant air does not exceed 40c or, for a watercooled motor, when the temperature of the water entering the heat exchanger does not exceed 25c, both at a height above sea level not exceeding m. The speed of an induction motor is given as n 120fp 1s. Therefore, to drive a frictional load, select the speed on the basis of starting. In general, the induction motor is cheaper and easier to maintain compared to other alternatives. In a good design this should occur as close to the rated slip.217 1133 978 438 1423 494 102 910 605 1028 796 1254 409 1472 169 895 195 782 1437 1335 720 691 10 537 1200 1434 1096 1142 838 490